I watched you in the garage, with your wipes and your mask, your gloves and bottles of sprays and potions. I admired your fealty to CNN’s Dr Sanjay Gupta as he demonstrated the proper technique for disinfecting groceries. I watched sterile protocol being broken and quietly closed the garage door.
I listened to your descriptions of the agility of the virus with each exhalation of breath, and how far the virus could travel with a tailwind and in cold dry air. I listen as closely and with the same intention as I listen to my yoga teacher’s explication of the benefits of attention to the breath.
Relatives and friends came prepared to be entertained outdoors. Even masked, you eschewed the world. Your version of science clash with my laissez-faire attitude. We blow up as a couple. Then we settle down and learn how to cope with the stress, as a team, together.
The COVID Factor
In the first few months of any stressor, family and couple functioning must reorganize to manage well. Like a family that welcomes a new child, we all have had to make accommodations for our unwelcome guest, COVID-19.
During lockdown, social scientists accessed an eager public ready to participate in their studies. With nowhere to go, many people, especially women, completed online COVID surveys. Community-based tools such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Social Vulnerability Index identified populations of high social vulnerability (as caused by external stresses on human health, such as unemployment, overcrowding, presence of an individual with caregiving needs, and low educational attainment ). It is assumed that such populations will experience more stress and have more difficulty coping and adjusting.
In a study by a team at the University of Miami, social vulnerability was associated with more disrupted family functioning, except when households with children (n = 2,666) were compared to households without children (n = 1,456).1 What are these allowed families with children to enjoy better functioning?
Looking more closely at the Miami study, what can we find? It is a large survey study (n = 4,122), disseminated through professional networks and social media via purchased Facebook and Instagram ads. Data were logged in REDCap, and participants had the option of taking the survey in English or Spanish. Most participants were female (93.5%), 55.7% responded in English, and 44.3% in Spanish. There were few differences between the women who had and did not have children, in terms of their age, employment status, and education level. The number of children in the household did not affect the results.
This study used a new tool called the COVID-19 Household Environment Scale. This tool has 25 items measuring individual and household characteristics, and associated COVID-19 stressors. This tool also includes two family functioning measures: conflict and cohesion, asking the respondent to reflect on the change in “conflict” or “togetherness,” as it relates to household experiences and activities, compared with the period before social distancing.
The surprising finding was that even though households with children reported more conflict than before the start of the pandemic, they also reported more cohesion. This syncs with my experience. My niece and nephew found that having their teenage children at home brought them closer as a family, cut down on some of the extracurricular activities they did not support, and generally “slowed the world down.”
However, in a study in Germany, survey respondents (n = 1,042) noted that having children up to 17 years old was associated with decreases in satisfaction with family life, although this was not related to changes in family demands. The study assessed changes over 6 months and underscores the fact that perceptions of family demands and family well-being are independent of each other.2
These findings also resonate with prior research that measured burden and reward in couples. High burden is not associated with low reward; These two constructs are independent of each other.3
What About Couples?
It is no surprise that poor relationships begat poor coping. In an online Belgian survey of 1,491 cohabiting couples during the shutdown, both men and women felt significantly more stress than before, because they felt restricted in their relationship.4
However, only women reported significantly more stress during the lockdown than before, because of relationship conflicts, such as feeling neglected by their partner. These feelings had predated lockdown.
In another lockdown online survey of 782 US adults (89.8% White, 84.5% female), cohabitating intimate partners reported that there were higher thoughts of separation if the participants were younger, or if there was higher verbal aggression, higher relationship invalidation, and lower relationship satisfaction. Higher relationship satisfaction was reported when there was lower money stress, higher sexual fulfillment, lower relationship invalidation, and higher perceived fairness of relationship power. High relationship satisfaction was also reported where there were no children in the home.5
It should be noted that none of these relationship variables was measured in the Miami study discussed above, and this study did not measure perceived conflict or perceived cohesion, so we know less about these aspects of the family unit.
What About Teens?
The COVID-19 lockdown had a positive effect on the dynamics in some families, according to a naturalistic study of adolescents (n = 155) who completed surveys at two time periods (initial and 8 weeks).6
These adolescents reported a reduction in perceived psychological control by their mothers, and no change in autonomy support. The changes did not vary according to gender or the mother’s employment situation. The decrease in psychological control was greater with higher initial levels of satisfaction with the mother, and lower levels of the teens disobeying their parents.
What About Hospital Settings?
The worst of the COVID experience was in the hospital. The pain was displayed on the faces of the staff as they labored to figure out how to care for the dying patients who had no contact with their families. Hospitals, out of fear of contamination and viral dissemination, excluded visitors. In those early days of uncertainty, the stress among staff, patients, and family members was high.
In response to family members feeling disconnected from the health care team and the psychological and moral distress of the staff, Nadine J. Kaslow and colleagues revised policies and procedures at Emory University, Atlanta, facilities to reprioritize patient- and family-centered care.7
The guiding principles focus on providing safe yet compassionate and ethical care, balancing community health and the mitigation of viral transmission, while appreciating family members as essential partners in care; fostering communication between patients and their families; and promoting interactions and decision-making among health care providers, patients, and families.
COVID continues to intrude in many of our lives. Many people are mourning family members and friends who died after contracting the disease. Many people choose to ignore their risk and live their lives as before. Many people, like my spouse and me, continue to debate the merits of venturing into public spaces. Personally, COVID has given me time to read many more books than I could ever have imagined and allowed my spouse to explore the delicate nuances of cooking.
Heru is professor of psychiatry at the University of Colorado at Denver, Aurora. She is editor of “Working With Families in Medical Settings: A Multidisciplinary Guide for Psychiatrists and Other Health Professionals” (New York: Routledge, 2013). She has no conflicts of interest to disclose. Contact Dr Heru at firstname.lastname@example.org.
1. Chavez JV et al. Assessing the impact of COVID-19 social distancing and social vulnerability on family functioning in an international sample of households with and without children. Couple Fam Psychol: Res Pract. 2021 Dec;10(4): 233-48. doi: 10.1037/cfp0000166.
2. Rudolph CW, Zacher H. Family demands and satisfaction with family life during the COVID-19 pandemic. Couple Fam Psychol: Res Pract. 2021 Dec;10(4): 249-59. doi: 10.1037/cfp0000170.
3. Heru AM et al. Family functioning in the caregivers of patients with dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004 Jun;19(6):533-7. doi: 10.1002/gps.1119.
4. Schokkenbroek JM et al. Partners in lockdown: Relationship stress in men and women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Couple Fam Psychol: Res Pract. 2021 Sept;10(3): 149-57. doi: 10.1037/cfp0000172.
5. Eubanks Fleming CJ, Franzese AT. Should I stay or should I go? Evaluating intimate relationship outcomes during the 2020 pandemic shutdown. Couple Fam Psychol: Res Pract. 2021 Sept;10(3): 158-67. doi: 10.1037/cfp0000169.
6. Bacikova-Sleskova M, et al. Did perceived parenting in adolescence change as a result of the COVID-19 lockdown? A natural experiment. Couple Fam Psychol: Res Pract. 2021 Dec;10(4): 271-80. doi: 10.1037/cfp0000167.
7. Kaslow NJ et al. A roadmap for patient- and family-centered care during the pandemic. Couple Fam Psychol: Res Pract. 2021 Sept;10(3): 223-32. doi: 10.1037/cfp0000176.
This article originally appeared on MDedge.com, part of the Medscape Professional Network.